Additional Resources for you to Explore
The following are excellent resources for teachers and students regarding plagiarism and the proper citation of sources:
The OWL at Purdue (Online Writing Lab) Here you'll find numerous articles on topics such as Contextualizing Plagiarism, Authorship and Popular Plagiarism, Copyright, Collaborative Authorship, Avoiding Plagiarism, Summarizing, Paraphrasing, Quoting, and using MLA and APA citations. Also, you can find extensive Research and Citation Resources on topics such as Conducting Research, Using Research, APA Style, MLA Style, and Chicago Manual of Style.
The Plagiarism Spectrum: Instructor Insights into the 10 Types of Plagiarism TurnItIn, the study’s authors, polled both higher and secondary education instructors in order to produce this White Paper. The authors acknowledge that, “the lines of what constitute plagiarism are blurring as the Internet reshapes culture and education” (3), and they provide definitions and examples of the ten most common types of plagiarism. The White Paper includes attractive graphics, scales on both the frequency and “problematic” nature of the different types of plagiarism, and samples of plagiarism by type. A 2’ x 3’ infographic poster is also available.
What is Citation?
A citation describes a source by presenting information about it (such as author and title) in a standard format. The information depends on the type of source, but typically answers these four questions:
An academic journal article from a database typically includes the author(s), publication year, article title, journal title, volume, issue and page numbers, and a digital object identifier:
A print book typically includes author(s) and/or editor(s), publication year, book title, and the publisher's name and location:
A citation is the basic, most relevant bibliographic information required in order to locate the full-text of a publication. The order and format in which this information appears varies according to precise guidelines, which are dictated by a specific set of rules, the discipline or field of study, and/or the requirements of particular pieces of academic writing.
A citation style dictates how the bibliographic information appears in citations for information sources. It provides governing directions for the order of the information, the font style, punctuation, and similar types of formatting. Common styles of citation include the Modern Language Association (MLA) style, the Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA) style.
Derived from the term bibliography, which refers to an organized listing of books, bibliographic information is descriptive data about information sources. This information varies according to the type of information source and includes details such as the author(s), date of publication, title of work, title of periodical, and publisher. Bibliographic information appears both on a source and within the library’s catalogue or databases, where it forms the basis for the electronic retrieval of the source.
In APA style, an alphabetical list of citations for all works used to write a research paper is required at the end of the paper. This list is titled “References” and the entries are called “reference list citations.” As a reference list and not a bibliography (a reference list cites only those works that are mentioned in the paper, whereas a bibliography would also contain works for background or further reading), each listing the reference list should have a corresponding citation in the text of the paper. Each reference list citation should include the necessary details (such as author, title, year, volume, issue, and publisher) so the reader can easily locate the source. These details must be ordered and formatted according to the specifications outlined in an up-to-date APA style manual, such as Cites and Sources
Every time you use the words or ideas of someone else in your own writing, you must acknowledge the original source with an in-text citation. In academic writing, there are several methods of citing source inside the text of a paper. These vary according to the citation style; some styles use footnotes or endnotes and other style, including APA style, use parenthetical referencing. APA style citations use brackets to incorporate the author’s last name, the year of publication, and page numbers, into the text, for example: (Brown, 2014, p. 200).
A doi, or digital object identifier, is like a social insurance number for a document online. It is a unique and permanent identifier that will take you straight to a document, regardless of where it may be located on the Internet. A doi will appear in one of two ways: (1) a number with the URL prefix http://dx.doi.org/; (2) a number beginning with “10.” Review this flowchart to determine when and how to include a doi in a reference list citation.
IP refers to legal rights that protect the products of intellectual work in various industrial, scientific, literary and artistic fields and capacities. These rights, such as patents, copyright, and trademarks, allow those who create these products to gain recognition or financial benefits in exchange for control over how their works are accessed, shared, used, or kept secure from others. IP is rooted in capitalism as a system intended to build financial incentives for creativity and innovation, which then contributes to economic growth and stability.